Long-term risks and advantages, associated with sterilised at the same time / castration dogs
Laura J. Sanborn, huh, biologijas natural Sciences
14 on May 2007.
NB: References to sources of (literature) stipulated the in brackets; under sterilised at the same time sook implies ovarigisterektomiya – removing uterine cervix and developing ovarian (persistent. spaying).
Most owners dogs sooner or later face question about whether to sterilize / castrate his pet. Commonly realized, that advantages early sterilization / castration of outweigh all possible risks.
Quite often a decision being taken in favor of mature tradition, although already produced many data, razvenchivayuschikh its.
In an attempt untying all complexity the issue, Mrs. Sanborn, huh studied numerous writings on veterinary medicine and content of the information in this Book of. Was carefully overhauled more 50 research works, concerning problems sterilization / castration of dogs.
Cannot be ignore has been increasing after castration of Samoyede predisposition to osteosarkome, gemangiosarkome, gipoteriozu and less often encountered diseases. Inability to account for all shortcomings and advantages and relate their with health and welfare animals, should considered irresponsibility – as with hand veterinary doctors, so and with hand just community owners dogs. Decision on sterilization prostate problems should be vetted by on the basis medical examination. Cannot be pursue standard operation on sterilization all technologies and also the on this issue patients.
In this Book of there is no generalizations. Quite the contrary, the author requests us given all available data on influence castration of and sterilization on health. On the basis now underway information and should to accept decision on individual level, in dependence from gender, age, breed, conditions content, of special training.
This an important dissertation will help representatives veterinary medicine, and also owners dogs to make decisions about castration of and sterilization more reasonably and thoughtfully. And this as times the, that need.
Larry S. Katz at, Doctor Sciences
Professor and Head the pulpit, surely beckons of zoology
(Rutgers public Hwang’s research university
New Rifleman's Assault Weapon, New Jersey.
The introduction of
Owners dogs in America often tell to sterilize / castrate their dogs for health. Under this cite a range of advantages, under whom there is no evidence base.
When discussing with masters of dogs question sterilization / castration of, hold back risks for health. Some doctors, calling the possible negative consequences, all same hold back about the most serious of them.
This article – attempt to we summarize the long-term risks and advantages, associated with sterilised at the same time / castration dogs, on the basis data, available in veterinary literature. In article not are discussed such questions, associated with sterilised at the same time / castration, as control of entails the dogs and behavioral changes.
Almost all affirmative and the negative consequences on health are listed on outcomes epidemiological studies for lasting period time. Also set some trends on the future.
The study of veterinary literature uncovers entire the complexity of the situation with long-term risks and benefits of, concerning sterilization / castration of dogs. There are evidence, waybill about the benefits and transmission sterilization / castration of. Becomes clear, that in society there is no clear understanding of this issue.
In a whole, cannot be find serious foundation for castration of majority Samoyede, especially still immature, if only we want avoid future health problems. Supreme problems, associated with castration, in most cases outweigh all advantages castration of Samoyede.
Nomenclatures pros castration of:
• accessed on cellphones eliminate risk the acquisition of such a disease, as cancer testicle (< 1%) and death from this disease;
• declines risk development nerakovykh diseases prostate;
• declines risk the acquisition of perianalnykh fistul;
• perhaps lowering risk efforts to win diabetes (data are unconvincing).
Nomenclatures cons castration of Samoyede:
• castration, delivered on to the dogs until achievements they one year, substantially increases the risk the acquisition of such a disease, as down, osteosarcoma to go (cancer bones); the illness most often meets among medium-size and large breeds, and forecasts on him are untenable;
• in 1.6 times expands risk disease gemangiosarkomoy hearts;
• in three times expands risk disease gipoteriozom (persistent lack of hormones thyroid);
• expands risk geriatricheskikh of cognitive violations;
• in three times expands risk obesity, frequent problems have dogs with other interlinked between themselves violations;
• in four times increases risk disease cancer prostate (figure have nekastrirovannykh dogs < .6%);
• in two times increases risk disease cancer urinary pathways (figure have nekastrirovannykh dogs < 1%);
• increases risk the emergence of orthopedic violations;
• increases risk manifestations of side effects on sound.
The situation have sook more complex. In some (but far not in all) cases the number of advantages sterilization can exceed number of health problems. According to observed data, the total the benefits from sterilization, perhaps, depends on age has presented to and porodnykh features of.
In general and a whole, pros sterilization these are:
• if sterilization continue made until 2.5 years, substantially declines risk the acquisition of tumors breast tumors (the most often result notably more cancers have sook);
• almost totally excluded risk disease piometroy, which usually are subject to about 23 percent nesterilizovannykh sook (piometra kills roughly 1% sook);
• declines risk the acquisition of perianalnykh fistul;
• manages fully get rid of risk development cancer tumors on the uterus, then and an attempt.
Now about minuses sterilization prostate problems:
• if sterilization continue made until one year, substantially increases risk development the osteosarcoma (cancer bones); this disease more often meets among sook large breeds, and forecasts on him are untenable;
• in 2.2 times increases risk the acquisition of gemangiosarkomy for a, and almost in 5 times increases risk the acquisition of gemangiosarkomy hearts (among some breeds this kind of cancer meets quite often and leads to vast an outcome);
• in three times increases risk development gipotireoza;
• in 1.5 - 2 times expands risk obesity, frequent problems have dogs with other interlinked between themselves violations;
• have 4 – 20% prostate problems emerges incontience urine;
• in 3-4 times increases risk the acquisition of chronic or pressing infectious diseases urinary pathways;
• increases risk violations forms deal, disease vaginal dermatitami and vaginitami, especially have sook, sterilized until achievements they maturing age;
• in two times increases risk development tumors urinary pathways (have nesterilizovannykh dogs he accounts for < 1%);
• increases risk development orthopedic violations;
• increases risk manifestations of side effects on vaccines.
One thing is clear: By and large, information sterilization / castration of, affordable, public, is unbalanced and contains in itself exaggerated or unconfirmed statements.
Instead of, to form owners dogs, such information leads to frequent delusions, cncerning consequences for health household pets.
Currently adopted to sterilize / castrate dogs in's lost six age. This leads to an additional risks, which can be avoid:
And) have prostate problems, if wait sexual maturation;
It comes) have Samoyede, if fully to abandon castration of (rule out cases, when castration is necessary on medical’s depositions before).
Higher set common data on to the dogs different breeds. They every person differs, in dependence from breed, age, gender and other features of. All these factors need to take account under decision-decisions on castration of / sterilization dogs. On outcomes research, impossible take common recommendations on this issue, which had been approached would absolutely all house-lover.
In this section set conclusions, made after studying diseases and violations, pertaining to sterilization / castration of dogs.
Complication after operations
Any surgical intervention are linked with certain risk. To example, are possible undesirable reaction on procedure will be pain free, hemorrhaging, fever "of, infection and camping on D. Speaking about tetanus, we have in mind immediate consequences either consequences short-term. Long-term complication can be reveal only after additional careful research.
In one clinic, our vacuum to Veterinary teaching ten, been conducted accounting complications, surfaced in the course operations and immediately after it. Mainline data statistics on sterilization prostate problems (1):
And) complication in the course operations – 6.3%;
It comes) complication after operations – 14.1%;
In) just complications – 20.6% (apparently, 0.2% dooperatsionnykh complications – REM. Interpreter).
On other sources the percentage of complications accounts for from 17.7% (2) until 23% (3). In one study on outcomes work Canadian private doctors complication amounted 22% have sook and 19% have Samoyede (4).
Such serious complication, as infection, abscesses, gap Walk peregryzanie joints amounted from 1 until 4% cases. Under this 90% dogs with these complications were bitches of and only 10% studs (4).
Mortality in a result the complications after sterilization / castration of quite low and is about 0.1% (2).
For the most part in literature, affordable for public, is claimed, that castration of will reduce or even fully would eliminate risk disease cancer prostate. Such assertions cannot be call], if given, that have people cancer prostate stems with pumper loaded with testosterone. Nevertheless, statistical data on to the dogs not confirm this assertion. Moreover, we see evidence contrary.
In recent years there was a series of epidemiological studies, the results on which testified either about increase risk the acquisition of cancer prostate have neutered dogs, either about his reducing. Unfortunately, for data research not enforced systematic telltale groups. Thus, the results was difficult interpreted. Precisely this fact can be cause of don results.
Recently was trapped two new research, in which were used telltale groups. One thing such study have been in Europe (5), and another – in America (6). Both research confirmed, that risk the acquisition of cancer prostate have neutered Samoyede increases in four times. On received outcomes researchers emit the next causality could may the link:
And) castration not is outlived development cancer prostate, but creates favorable conditions for his development (5).
It comes) “Skyfall our data, most cancer diseases prostate belong to protokovym / urotelialnym kartsinomam … More low the number of diseases cancer prostate have nekastrirovannykh Samoyede can mean, that testikulyarnye hormones bear protective function, was built around development protokovykh / urotelialnykh kartsinom, or have indirect independent influence on development cancer from-for influence on environment prostate ” (6).
These facts should know. The situation with cancer prostate have dogs significantly different from situation have people. Cancer prostate meets have dogs extremely rarely (0.6% on outcomes patologoanatomicheskikh research) (7). So risk disease cancer prostate should not account for in most decisions on castration of. That concerns porodnykh features of, heightened risk disease cancer prostate was discovered have of Flanders Cattle Dog (5), on other same aboriginal data little.
Because during castration of this are removed, with them disappears and risk disease cancer testicle. What is same statistics on at risk development this disease have nekastrirovannykh Samoyede? Among elderly nekastrirovannykh dogs testikulyarnye tumor meet quite often – 7% (8). Nevertheless, forecast treatment quite facilitate,, given low level of development metastatic disease (9). Cancer testicle rarely is cause of death nekastrirovannykh Samoyede. For example, university Pyordyu spent study on golden retriveram (10), entitled “vertebra life, lost on proven rates reasons death. ” In lists causes death cancer testicle even not worth, in view of the rarified such deaths, despite the, that 40 percent of investigated horndogs were not indicates. Moreover, there% Samoyede with testikulyarnymi tumors fully from them cured at the moment. According to other research, cancer testicle gave when in 6-14% cases (11).
High the percentage of cures here on testikulyarnym the tumors, and also low the frequency they arise allow suggest, that from cancer testicle die less one percent nekastrirovannykh horndogs.
Cancer testicle – one of the main reasons, on which owners young Samoyede tell do orchiectomy real cheap their pets. However risk from this species cancer so small, that it is difficult considered his serious grounds for castration of.
The exception can be kriptorkhidy, because the them propensity to acquisition cancer testicle (Arts in abdominal fat) increases in 13.6 times (12). Moreover, cancer neopustivshegosya testicle quite hard to detect by physical exploring.
Down, osteosarcoma to go (cancer bones)
Study by the on many rocks by dogs, froze, that risks on osteosarkome have neutered Samoyede and sterilized sook in two times higher, than have nesterilizovannykh / nekastrirovannykh dogs (13).
Forth were deliberately studied rotveylery, because this breed of has quite a large number of diseases the osteosarcoma. Then dogs smashed on groups, in dependence from age, when symposium was held castration / sterilization continue. Was detected, that risk development the osteosarcoma stems with young vozrastam kastriruemykh / sterilizuemykh dogs (14).
Among of Rottweilers, which have made operation until year, down, osteosarcoma to go ” met have horndogs in 3.8 and have prostate problems in 3.1 times more often, than have neprooperirovannykh dogs correlative gender. If to the same given porodnuyu predisposition of Rottweilers to this disease, then can be argue, that have end until year dogs this breed risk development the osteosarcoma increases have Samoyede until 28.4% and have sook until rise being 25,1%. These results not contradict outcomes more early research for different aboriginal (13). And thanks to this a narrow exploration of on one breed managed link dependence development the osteosarcoma from age, in which is done castration / sterilization continue.
Hence should logical conclusion, that after castration of Samoyede and sterilization sook until one year substantially increases risk development the osteosarcoma. Researchers suggest the availability of next causality could inquisitorial ties: Sex hormones, as known, affect maintaining structures and masses skeleton, so than before is happening intervention in hormonal von, the higher risk development the osteosarcoma (14).
Risk development the osteosarcoma also increases in dependence from size breed, and especially in dependence from growth (13). This is quite simple the reason death for medium-size, large and giant breeds. Down, osteosarcoma to go is worth on third place among the most often result causes death in golden Golden Retriever puppies (10) and kills dogs more large breeds still more often (13).
Given adverse forecast on osteosarkome and frequency, with which she meets in many rocks by, castration / sterilization continue dogs medium-size, large and giant breeds in depreciated age substantially increases the risk death from the osteosarcoma
Cancer breast tumors
Tumor dairy glands – the most often imperfections tumor have nesterilizovannykh sook. According to research, Graz in Norway, where ovarigisterektomiyu make far less frequently, than in the US, cancer tumor dairy glands comprise roughly 53% all notably more cancers have sook (15).
Of malignant are about 50-60% tumors dairy glands; risk development metastatic disease from them quite is high (16). Many cancer cells breast tumors contain receptors estrogen (17). According to published research (18), the relative risk development cancer breast tumors in dependence from estrusov (techek) has the next performance:
His-in estrusov until sterilization the relative risk
2 and more. 0,26
Not has been sterilized. 1,00
Those same data, systematic otherwise by age, have shown the next the relative risk on development cancer breast tumors:
Age under sterilization the relative risk
Until 29 months. 0,06
After 30 months. 0,40
Not has been sterilized. 1,00
Note, that speech goes about relative risk. Not worth be confused his with an absolute.
Have women (have people) occurred lowering risk development cancer breast tumors in age until forty years under “an artificial menopause ” (19). As known, and have women cancer breast in excess estrogen.
Cancer breast tumors was is named-tenth cause of “squandered years life ” golden Golden Retriever puppies, despite the, that 86% sook who demonstrated in study, were sterilised (by decade age sterilization averaged 3.4 years) (10).
If given, that cancer breast tumors most often meets have individuals female, then, according to research among golden Golden Retriever puppies, he is fifth cause of “squandered years life ” for sook this breed. He held would even more “advanced positions ”, if would greater the number of prostate problems remained nesterilizovannymi until 30-monthly age.
Boxers, cocker-spaniels, British Springer-spaniels and fees includes in group risk on the tumors breast tumors. (15) In the course research on greater parts of nesterilizovannykh sook breed boxer was detected, that risk development cancer breast tumors in age 6-12 years accounts for have them 40% (15).
There are some data, waybill about how, that have thoroughbred dogs this risk can be significantly higher, than have coloureds, and also that risk increases with increase in’loan inbreeding have inbreds dogs (20). Nevertheless, for affirming these data are required additional research.
Thus, sterilization continue sook substantially reduces risk disease cancer breast tumors, and than less was estrusov until 30-monthly age, those below risk.
Cancer reproductive organs have prostate problems (cancer uterine cervix, a neck and developing ovarian)
Tumor uterine cervix and a neck meets have sook rarely and comprise just 0.3% all tumors have dogs (21). Risk development cancer developing ovarian accounts for 0.5% (22). Sterilization continue will allow eliminate risk disease cancer reproductive organs, which, nevertheless, should not considered sufficient grounds for conducting operations in view low indicators.
Cancer urogenital bubble and urethral
In the course research, in which addressed dogs different age groups, was revealed, that have sterilized / neutered dogs risk development cancer at departments urinary pathways (urogenital bubble and urethral) in two times higher, than have nekastrirovannykh / nesterilizovannykh dogs (23). Tumor at departments urinary pathways almost always are of malignant, however meet rarely has, accounting for less 1% tumors have dogs. Thus, risk development this disease should not be viewed in as a an active factors in decisions about castration of / sterilization.
Have erdeltererov, bigley and of Scottish Black Terriers risk development cancer at departments urinary pathways higher middle average, then as have German sheep-dogs he below (23).
Angiosarcoma – the generalized kind of cancer have dogs, in especially have next breeds: Status, French bulldog, the Irish the spaniel, pryamosherstnyy Retrievers, golden Retrievers, boxer, Afghan Hound, English setter, Oz, Scottish terrier breed, boston-terrier breed, bulldog and the German Ovtcharka (24).
In study dogs on 'age groups, sterilized has presented to had risk development gemangiosarkomy for a in 2.2 times higher, than nesterilizovannye has presented to (24).
That concerns a similar research on gemangiosarkome hearts, then have sterilized sook risk development this disease more than in five times higher, than have nesterilizovannykh sook. Have neutered Samoyede he in 1.6 times higher, than have nekastrirovannykh (25). The authors published research consider, that sex hormones can defend organism from development gemangiosarkomy, in especially have sook.
Accepting decision about sterilization / castration of in rocks by, in which gemangiosarkoma recognized serious cause of death, should necessarily account for risk development this disease.
Was detected, that risk development gipotireoza have neutered and sterilized dogs in three times higher, than have nekastrirovannykh / nesterilizovannykh (26).
Here is that write about this researchers: “Svyaz sterilization and castration of with as a history of hypothyroidism can have attitude to influence female genital hormones on adrenal glands system. On studies, castration aggravates autoimmune silent thyroiditis have mice. ” Hypothyroidism have dogs leads to obesity, apathy, loss of wool and reproductive violations (27).
That concerns breeds, the, on studies, have golden Golden Retriever puppies risk development gipotireoza accounts for one to four (10), have akit – one to the three (28), and have German of the – one to thirteen (29).
In ties with changes in exchange substances, kastrirovannye / sterilized dogs have greater propensity to obesity and the excess call weight, than nekastrirovannye / nesterilizovannye dogs (30).
According to one from research, propensity to obesity have sterilized sook rises in 1.6 times, have neutered Samoyede – in 3 times. Propensity to the excess call weight have sterilized prostate problems in 1.2 times higher, have neutered horndogs – in 1.5 times higher (31). Study by the in Britain, showed, that 21% of investigated patients had the contestant or different degree of obesity (30).
Obesity and glee weight are linked with sales of problems have dogs. Often have dogs with plus weight accented the hypercortisolism (syndrome Cushing's), gap krestoobraznoy; and jangling, hypothyroidism, disease at departments urinary pathways and disease fat cavity (32).
Have dogs with fat accented hypothyroidism, sakharnyy diabetes, pancreatitis, gap krestoobraznoy; and jangling and neoplasia (tumor) (32).
Some studies show, that risk development diabetes have neutered Samoyede increases in two times. But other research not confirmed substantial increasing risk have Samoyede (33). For the same studies, ties between sterilised at the same time sook and diabetes detected not was.
Complication under vaccination
Was trapped a retrospective cohort study on side-effects identified by have dogs after vaccination, including allergic reaction, covered in hives, the anaphylaxis, halt hearts, serdechnososudistuyu inadequacy and the windfall death. It turned out, that have sterilized prostate problems side effects met on 30% more often, than have nesterilizovannykh, and have neutered horndogs – on 27% more often, than have nekastrirovannykh (34).
Researchers consider, that sex hormones can be are linked with reaction immune systems on sound (34).
Small and mini-breed dogs have heightened risk on corneal under vaccination, and also heightened risk was marked by have next breeds: Boxer, English bulldog, Lhasa Apso, weimaraner, the American Inuit dog, golden Retrievers, a basset-hound, velsh-corgi, exercises husky, German graphic to, labrador-Retrievers, Doberman, American American Pit Bull Terrier and an Akita (34).
Have coloureds this risk was substantially below. The authors research suggest, that the reason in genetic heterogeneity of.
Have sterilized prostate problems quite often meets incontience urine. It can emerge as soon after operations, so and through few years. For different sources, incontience have sterilized sook comes in 4-20% cases (35,36,37). Have nesterilizovannykh sook figure 0.3% (38). Incontience urine so heavily stems with sterilised at the same time, that his sometimes call “incontinent sterilization. ” Cause of of pregnancy is the failure sphincter urethral (39), although fully this biological mechanism not studied.
In most cases (but far not always) incontience urine treatable. In many cases treatment continues entire life dogs (40).
According to established research, have sterilized sook chronic and excess infection urinary pathways meet in 3-4 times more often, than have nesterilizovannykh (41). According to another established research, the likelihood the emergence of infections urinary pathways have sook, sterilized until 5.5 months, in 2,76 times higher, than have sook, sterilized after 5.5 months (42).
Sterilization continue also is bad for development external mutilation, in dependence from age, when is conducted operation. Have sterilized sook discovered more high risk development such wealth, and diseases, as violation of forms deal, vaginal dermatity, vaginitus, infection; system (43). Especially is high risk have sook, sterilized until achievements they gender maturity (43).
Endometritis (catches uterine cervix)
According to Swedish insurance companies (and in Sweden sterilization continue method ovarigisterektomii meets rarely), 23% prostate problems fall sick piometroy until achievements they 10th age (44). Such breed, as bernskiy Sennenhund, the, dlinnosherstnyy kennel, superior Charles spaniel and golden Retrievers, includes in group lavished risk (44). Has presented to, which have not was puppies, also have more high risk disease piometroy (45).
Very rarely piometra happens and have sterilized ovarigisterektomiey dogs – in is case, when means was removed not fully. Piometru usually holistic addiction treatment methods induced medically or appreciating the by, however in 4% cases piometra leads to death (44). If given data in frequency arise this disease, is obtained, that about 1% percent nesterilizovannykh sook die from piometry.
Have horndogs perianalnye fistulas. Emerge in two times more often, than have sook. And have sterilized and neutered dogs risk development perianalnykh fistul higher, than have nesterilizovannykh / nekastrirovannykh (46). That concerns porodnykh features of, then in primary group risk are German sheep-dogs and Irish the setters (46).
Nezlokachestvennye violations the prostate tumors
Risk development benign hypertrophy (medical) the prostate tumors (BPH) expands with age. This disease meets have more than 80% nekastrirovannykh Samoyede in age older 5 years (47). In most cases BPH not causes problems, however sometimes have dogs arise difficulties with defekatsiey and urination.
Castration can prevent BPH. If stala you geld them after arise BPH, a prostate will be reduced relatively quickly. Should also account for, that BPH case connected with other violations / diseases prostate, including infection, abscesses and cyst, which sometimes can have serious consequences.
In study, conducted on biglyakh, was detected, that removing developing ovarian (that is happening and under ovarigisterektomii) envious violations in remodulyatsii pelvic bones (48), that says about an augmented risk have sterilized sook efforts to win also called BAER.
Moreover, was been, that after sterilization slumped mass bone tissue irreparable (49). Sterilization continue / castration immature dogs postpones closing Rostovykh frieze of on the bones, and because bones in a result become longer than the, than have nesterilizovannykh / nekastrirovannykh dogs, or those, whom operation have made after achievements gender maturity (50).
Because rostovye friezes various broken bones are closed in different times, sterilization continue / castration, delivered on after closing some Frisia and until closing other, can lead to training proportsiyam and influence physical form of and sturdiness joints.
Sterilization or murder / orchiectomy real cheap also associate with Fullcontact increase in risk on gap kranialnoy krestoobraznoy; and jangling (51). Perhaps, this also stems with fat (30).
Sterilization continue / castration until 5.5 months on 70% increases the risk the acquisition of also called BAER hip replacements, compared with sterilised at the same time / castration after 5.5 months. Although was marked by, that have the first groups (operation until 5.5 months) dysplasia was not very high extent (42).
Researchers suggest the next: “being widely cited as evidence size broken bones, the after early sterilization / castration of, is bad and on joints, that leads to also called BAER. ”
In the course research on erdeltererakh, was detected, that sterilized / kastrirovannye dogs more have suffered from also called BAER, and also from “skeleton-muscle violations ”, than nekastrirovannye / nesterilizovannye dogs (52). However in study were not contained by such factors, as the likelihood conducting operations on castration of / sterilization precisely for reason availability of also called BAER and skeleton-muscle violations.
According to still one exploration of, have Samoyede, neutered, as least, for six months until installation diagnosis on also called BAER hips, dysplasia ” met in and a half times more often, than have nekastrirovannykh Samoyede (53).
Have neutered / sterilized dogs risk of habitual shoulder shin guards in 3.1 times higher, than have nekastrirovannykh / nesterilizovannykh (54).
Geriatricheskie cognitive disorder
Have neutered Samoyede and sterilized sook risk deterioration moderates geriatricheskikh of cognitive disorders significantly higher, than have nekastrirovannykh Samoyede (55). Unfortunately, in this study the number of nesterilizovannykh prostate problems was relatively small, to account for his in determining risk.
Geriatricheskie cognitive disorder include such fortune, as disorientation in House or on the street, changes in social interactions with human members of family, loss of acquired skills, violations sleep (55).
Researchers argue: “Those results fit the latest discoveries about neyrozaschitnykh properties testosterone and estrogen on cellular level, and also role estrogen in preventing disease Alzheimer have women (people). Can be to assume, that will is open such role estragena and have nesterilizovannykh prostate problems. Unfortunately, in this study Congresses had too little nesterilizovannykh sook, in ties with than we not can confirm this hypothesis ” (55).
Neutral enforcement the study of veterinary literature allows assess the complexity of the situation on long-term risks and benefits of castration of and sterilization. There are evidence, that data operations can yield as favor of, so and harm. In any case, modern, readily available knowledge on-discussed topic incredibly small.
Educating outcome, we not see serious reason for castration of majority Samoyede “on reason prevent future health problems ”, especially in case with young, goal studs. Number of health problems, cropping in a result castration of, outweighs the number of advantages castration of in most cases.
That concerns sook, then with them the situation is more complex. The number of advantages can'erweigh the number of problems in many (but not in all) cases. The total the benefits from sterilization has presented to, perhaps, depends on age dogs and relative risks breed.
242 tradition to sterilize / castrate dogs in six months leads to unjustified risks, which managed would avoid, if would operation symposium was held after gender maturity. (And in case with studs without serious medical reason orchiectomy real cheap at all not should have to do.)
Long-term risks and advantages castration of / sterilization every person differs, in dependence from a species, age, gender and other factors, which need to account for, accepting decision on each specific dog. Impossible take common recommendations, which had been approached would to all-lover.